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م.م. رغد محمد سليمان
مدير فني اقدم سمية زكي رشيد
مترجم اقدم راوية طارق ياسين

 
جدول محاضرات الفصل الاول والثاني للعام الدراسي 2013-2014
 

 
كلمة السيد العميد للخريجيين
 

 
مجلة الكلية
 

 
ترقيات علمية
 

 
صور طبية
 

 
المحاضرات
 

 
نماذج اسئلة امتحانية
 

 
فعاليات الكلية
 

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دليل كلية الطب للعام 2013
 

 
دليل كلية الطب
 

دليل كلية الطب لعام 2012

 
مؤتمر اليوبيل الذهبي
 

::كلمة السيد العميد في مؤتمر اليوبيل الذهبي
:: ملخصات البحوث المقدمة في مؤتمر اليوبيل الذهبي

 
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:: موقع طب وجراحة العيون
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( مادة الفسلجة )

Second Year

Physiology

Theoretical Lectures

-      Introduction

Learning Objectives and Goals: The student is expected to be able to understand the basic concepts of physiology and their role in understanding different disease processes in different body system. The student should also realize that "Physiology of today is the Medicine of tomorrow".

 

-      Cell physiology and body fluids

Learning Objectives and Goals: The student is expected to be able to:

 

1.      discuss simple diffusion, including determinants of the diffusion constant in free solution, membrane permeability constants.

2.      discuss the characteristics of facilitated diffusion, active transport and other protein mediated transport systems.

3.      describe osmosis, the concept of osmotic pressure.

4.      discusses maintenance of cell volume. The student is expected to be able to

5.      discuss the role of the Na+, K+ -ATP ase (sodium pump) in maintaining solute gradients.

 

-      Nerve and muscle physiology

Learning Objectives and Goals: The student is expected to be able to:

 

1.        describe the ionic basis for the resting potential, and define the terms hyperpolarization and            depolarization.

2.        describe the ionic basis for the action-potential threshold, the rapid depolarization (spike), rapid repolarization, and hyperpolarized after potential phases of the action potential.

3.        describe the concepts of absolute and relative refractory periods.

4.        discusses propagation of action potentials in neurons and skeletal-muscle fibers.

5.        describe saltatory conduction.

6.        describe the structure of muscle fibers by defining the terms myofibril, sarcomere,

       sarcolemma, transverse tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum.

7.        discuss the basis for the banded microscopic appearance of muscle fibers.

8.        describe the structure of the thin (actin) and thick (myosin) filaments.

9.        describe the crossbridge cycle in mechanical as well as biochemical terms.

10.    discuss excitation-contraction coupling from the initiation of the action potential

11.    describe the differences between isometric and isotonic contractions;

12.    discuss the active length-tension relationship in muscle.

13.    contrast the cellular structure of cardiac muscle with that of skeletal muscle.

14.    describe excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle;

15.    describe the ionic basis for the cardiac action potential in different regions of the heart.

16.    discuss why cardiac muscle cannot produce tetanic contractions.

17.    discuss the dual innervation of cardiac muscle, types of cholinergic and adrenergic

 receptors, and hormonal sensitivity or cardiac muscle.

18.    discuss the anatomy and functions of smooth muscle in different parts of the body;

1.        describe the differences between single- and multiunit smooth muscle.

2.        describe the cellular organization of smooth muscle, including filament ratio, lack of sarcomeres, rarefied sarcoplasmic reticulum, dense bodies.

3.        describe excitation-contraction coupling in smooth muscle, including the roles of calmodulin and myosin light-chain kinase.

4.        describe types of electrical activity in smooth muscle, including action potentials, pacemaker and slow-wave potentials.

5.        discuss myogenic activity in smooth muscle, as well as how activity is modulated byhormones and the autonomic nervous system.

 

-      Blood

Learning Objectives and Goals: The student is expected to be able to:

1.      describe the composition of blood, including the numbers of the different cell types.

2.       discuss the functional roles of erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes.

3.       describe the functions of hemoglobin

4.       discuss the role of erythropoietin in the control of erythropoiesis.

5.      describe the structure of hemoglobin.

6.       discuss the different mechanisms of hemostasis.

7.       describe the lytic pathway and its means of activation.

 

-      Autonomic nervous system

Learning Objectives and Goals The student is expected to be able to::

 

1.       describe the general characteristics of the autonomic nervous system.

2.       discuss the origin and pathway of the sympathetic division of the system.

3.       describe the neurotransmitters released at the preganglionic synapse, and the nerve endings.

4.       describe the effects of sympathetic activation, notably the alarm (fight or flight) response.

5.       describe the origin and pathway of the parasympathetic system.

6.       discuss examples of the varied effects of parasympathetic activation.

7.       discuss the two major ways that sympathetic and parasympathetic system control tissues.

-      Gastro-intestinal tract

Learning Objectives and Goals: The student is expected to be able to:

 

1.      describe the major functions of the GI tract (bulk transport, secretion, digestion and absorption).

2.       list the major anatomical structures of the GI tract, 45.4 discuss epithelial function (absorption, secretion, paracrine and endocrine function),

3.      describe electrical activity in GI smooth muscle.

4.      discuss the role of intrinsic and extrinsic nerves in regulating motility and secretions.

5.       discuss the phases of swallowing.

6.      discuss the functions of the stomach, mechanism of secretion and function of gastric acid and pepsinogen, control and phases of acid secretion, gastric ulceration (causes and treatment), and mechanism and control of gastric motility.

7.       describe the process of vomiting, what stimulates it, and how it is controlled.

8.      discuss gallbladder secretion of bicarbonate, its function in neutralizing gastric acid, how it is produced, and how the secretion rate is regulated.

1.       discuss pancreatic exocrine function, the phases of pancreatic secretion, the production of zymogens, the different pancreatic enzymes and their activation from inactive precursors.

2.       describe liver and gallbladder production and concentration of bile salts.

3.      discuss intestinal functions, intestinal surface anatomy and area, intestinal secretions, and secretion disorders leading to diarrhea (e.g., cholera).

4.      describe intestinal motility, contrast it with gastric motility, discuss how it is mediated by myogenic activity, but regulated by neurogenic means (e.g., local reflexes and autonomic nervous system).

5.      describe the major functions of the colon, its mucosal anatomy, and the types of motility.

6.       discuss the process of defecation.

 

 

-      Cardiovascular system

Learning Objectives and Goals: The student is expected to be able to:

 

1.      describe the different types of blood vessels.

2.      relate the influence of a vessel's physical characteristics and of blood viscosity to their influence on blood flow through the vessel, as described by Poiseuille's law.

3.       define the anatomical structures of the heart.

4.       describe the ionic basis of the cardiac resting and action potentials.

5.       describe the basis of lead placement and the nature and magnitude of the voltages measured in a simple three-lead (leads I, II and III) EKG.

6.       understand the temporal relationship between action potential propagation, the cardiac mean electrical axis, and the resulting EKG;

7.       define the segments and intervals of the normal EKG;

8.       define the phases of the cardiac cycle.

9.      define preload, afterload, and positive and negative inotropic and chronotropic regulation.

10.   describe the location and function of carotid and aortic baroreceptors and chemoreceptors, and the pathways involved in the regulation of cardiac function.

11.  describe the dependence of heart rate on changes in carotid chemoreceptor stimulation and in blood volume (Bainbridge reflex).

12.  relate the three hormone systems that regulate blood volume in response to changes in atrial pressure (ADH, atriopeptins) or renal perfusion (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone).

13.   define active hyperemia and the relationship between tissue metabolic activity and blood flow through it.

14.   identify agents and mechanisms by which vascular resistance is modulated via changes in arteriolar diameter.

15.  Understand pathways, and hormonal regulatory systems that are invoked by a normal individual to counteract the effects of blood loss through hemorrhage.

16.   Lecture 26 discusses the microcirculation. The student is expected to be able to

17.   understand the structure and function of tissue capillary beds.

18.  understand the characteristics, limits, and relative importance in diffusion (Fick's law),filtration, and the movement of large molecules in transcapillary exchange.

19.  define arterial and interstitial hydrostatic and oncotic pressures and determine net capillary filtration rates.

20.   identify those components in blood composition, and capillary filtration properties, that are important for lymph formation under normal conditions, and edema formation under abnormal conditions.

-      Respiratory system

Learning Objectives and Goals: The student is expected to be able to:

 

1.      distinguish between cellular (internal) and external respiration31.3 list the other functions of the respiratory system besides gas exchange.

2.       list the component organs and structures that comprise the respiratory system.

3.      describe the structural characteristics of the airways, the alveolar-capillary unit, the chest wall and muscles of respiration, and the neural components of the respiratory system.

4.      describe the actions of the respiratory muscles and the resultant motions of the rib cage and abdomen as well as the effects this muscular activity has on intrathoracic and intraabdominal volumes.

5.      summarize the changes that take place in intrapleural and alveolar pressures, airflow, and lung volume during the course of a normal breath.

6.      describe the role of alveolar surface forces in generating lung recoil, and the function of surfactant.

7.      understand the elastic recoil properties of the chest wall and how the lung and chest wall interact.

8.      describe the various types of airflow as well as the determinants of airway resistance.

9.      describe the distribution of airway resistance and the factors that contribute to it.

10.   discusses lung volumes and capacities as well as alveolar ventilation.

11.  calculate minute and alveolar ventilation;

12.  know the normal values of O2 and CO2 in the lungs and blood and how changes in ventilation affect these values.

13.  appreciate the differences between the pulmonary and systemic circulations.

14.   discusses pulmonary diffusion and blood gas transport.

15.  describe the diffusion paths of O2 and CO2 at the alveolar-capillary and the capillary tissue interface.

16.   understand the fundamental law of diffusion and the factors in the lungs that influence diffusion.

17.  understand the relationship between the partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in the blood and the amount of each that is physically dissolved.

18.  describe the chemical combination of O2 with hemoglobin and the O2 dissociation curve.

19.  describe the physiological consequences of the shape of the O2 dissociation curve and list factors that can affect this curve.

20.   appreciate the relative importance of the various forms in which CO2 is transported in the blood.

21.   explain in molecular terms the Bohr and Haldane effects.

22.   understand how arterial blood gases and pH are measured and what normal values are for PO2, PCO2, and pH.

23.   know the potential causes of hypoxic hypoxia and other forms of hypoxia;

24.   describe the regional differences in ventilation and perfusion and understand the  consequences of ventilation-perfusion mismatch.

25.  describe the general organization of the respiratory control system;

26.   describe the structures that constitute the central controller, being able to specify which components are responsible for the generation of spontaneous rhythmicity.

1.      understand the mechanisms by which the respiratory control system maintains the arterial CO2, O2 and pH.

2.      describe the responses of the respiratory system to exercise.

 

-      Central nervous system

Learning Objectives and Goals: The student is expected to be able to:

 

1.       discusses the blood-brain barrier, cerebral spinal fluid, the anatomy of the brain, and to describe the meninges and blood-brain barrier, and the composition and genesis of cerebral spinal fluid.

2.      describe the general characteristics of the somatosensory (somesthetic) system, including sensory fields and dermatomes.

3.       describe the anatomy and function of the dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway.

4.       discuss the cerebral cortex and Brodman’s areas, and particularly, the organization of the somesthetic cortex (precentral gyrus).

5.       describe the anatomy and function of the ventral spinothalamic pathway.

6.       describe the anatomy and function of the lateral spinothalamic pathway.

7.      discuss how hemisection lesions at various levels of the cord affects somesthetic sensation.

8.      describe the anatomy and function of the spinocerebellar pathways.

9.       describe the anatomy of the cerebellum, and the effects of lesions on motor behavior.

10.  discuss the general organization of the diencephalon, midbrain, pons and medulla.

11.   discuss the pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems.

12.   describe the anatomy and functions of the corticobulbar and corticospinal pathways.

13.  discuss the structure and function of the extrapyramidal pathways, and the function of the basal ganglia.

14.   discuss the relative roles of all the descending pathways on the control of motor neurons.

15.  describe the differences between lower motor neuron (flaccid) and upper motor neuron (voluntary) lesions.

 

 

-      Special senses

Learning Objectives and Goals: The student is expected to be able to:

1.       describe the structure of the eye.

2.       describe clinical disorders of image formation (e.g., presbyopia, myopia and hyperopia),

3.       describe the functions of the different cell types of the retina.

4.       describe how humans perceive color;

5.       describe the cellular anatomy of the photoreceptors;

6.       discuss the anatomy of the central visual pathways.

7.       discuses hearing, the vestibular system, taste and smell.

8.       describe the anatomy of the external, middle and internal ear.

9.       describe how sound intensity is measured, and the amplitudes of common sounds.

10.  describe in detail the inner ear, discussing the scala vestibuli, scala media, scala tympani, the vestibular membrane, organ of corti and the basilar membrane.

11.   describe how sounds are transmitted in the inner ear, how frequency coding is

12.  accomplished by the basilar membrane, and how the hair cells function to change the activity of the auditory afferent neurons.

1.      discuss the function of the vestibular system in detecting head position, and changes in linear and rotational acceleration.

2.       discuss the anatomy of the semicircular canals, including their composition, and the structure of the hair cells.

3.      discuss how displacement of the utricle is mediated by changes in head position and linear acceleration, while displacement of the cupola in the semicircular canals is mediated by changes in rotational acceleration.

4.       show how these changes affect the hair cells, and how this results in changes in the activity of afferent neurons of the vestibular nerve.

5.       describe the structural differences between taste receptors and olfactory receptors.

6.       discuss why molecules must first be solubilized before being sensed either by taste or olfactory receptors.

 

-      Renal physiology and acid-base balance

Learning Objectives and Goals: The student is expected to be able to:

 

1.      know the four basic elements of renal function, including: glomerular filtration, tubular  reabsorption and secretion, endocrine function.

2.       know the basic features of the vascular and tubular systems, and the juxtaglomerular apparatus.

3.       understand the distribution of hydrostatic and oncotic pressures in the renal vasculature.

4.       know the permselective characteristics of the glomerular capillary wall.

5.       be able to describe the determinants of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), including  glomerular capillary hydrostatic and oncotic pressures, intratubular pressure, and the ultrafiltration coefficient.

6.       understand the concept of filtration fraction.

 

7.       understand RBF autoregulation and tubuloglomerular feedback mechanisms.

8.       appreciate the fundamental aspects of epithelial cell structure and function.

9.       be able to describe the different membranes in epithelial cells, including basolateral and apical membranes, and tight junctions.

10.   be able to define the following: osmosis, primary and secondary active transport, passive transport, secretory mechanisms.

11.  understand proximal tubular reabsorption and secretion: Na+, Cl-, water, other ions and organic solutes.

12.   understand osmotic equilibration of the descending limb tubular fluid with the medullary interstitium.

13.  understand the cellular mechanism of tubular fluid dilution in the ascending limb.

14.   know that sodium reabsorption is regulated by aldosterone and atrial natriuretic factor.

15.   understand that potassium secretion in the distal tubule and collecting duct is regulated by aldosterone.

16.   know that water reabsorption in the distal tubule and collecting duct is regulated by ADH.

17.  to define filtered load, excretion rate, renal clearance.

18.   appreciate that the generation of concentrated urine occurs via active countercurrent multiplication.

19.   understand the mechanism of passive equilibration of the tubular fluid in the descending limb;and  active dilution of tubular fluid in the ascending limb and the concurrent deposition of NaCl into the medullary interstitium.

1.       be able to describe urea recycling in the medulla.

2.       know how hypotonic urine is generated and excreted.

3.       be able to describe passive countercurrent exchange in the vasa recta.

4.       be able to describe body water and solute balance.

5.       know the cellular actions of ADH in the renal tubule.

6.      Know the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP); also regulation of renal potassium excretion is discussed.

7.       know the actions of angiotensin II (and III), including: inhibition of renin secretion.

8.       be able to describe the actions of aldosterone in the distal tubule and collecting ducts to increase luminal membrane Na+ and K+ permeabilities and sodium-pump activity.

9.       know the effects of aldosterone on renal sodium and potassium excretion.

10.  Know renal sodium excretion.

11.   know that plasma potassium concentration is regulated by the kidney.

12.   know that most of the filtered potassium is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule and Henle's loop.

13.   understand the mechanism of secretion of potassium in distal tubule and CD.

14.   appreciate the interactions between renal sodium and potassium excretion.

15.   understand the production of fixed and volatile acids in the body.

16.   know the major body buffer systems.

17.   be able to describe the bicarbonate-CO2 buffer system.

18.   appreciate the importance of respiratory regulation of CO2 and responses to changes in blood pH.

19.   be able to describe and use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to analyze buffering of fixed acids and bases and the impact of changes in blood CO2

20.  be able to describe buffering by phosphate, protein, bone, and other buffer systems.

21.  know how the kidney responds to basic acid-base disorders.

22.   understand the renal response to metabolic acidosis and alkalosis.

23.   know the role of respiratory compensation for metabolic acidosis/alkalosis.

24.   understand that the kidneys excrete excess acid/base and produce bicarbonate.

25.   appreciate that the kidneys provide compensation for respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.

26.   know basic cellular mechanism of tubular proton secretion and the generation of new bicarbonate.

27.   be able to describe the major tubular fluid buffers: filtered bicarbonate, titratable buffers,ammonia.

 

-      Endocrine and reproductive physiology

Learning Objectives and Goals: The student is expected to be able to: 

1.      1.understanding of the physiological effects of hormones and the derangements that result from dysfunction, including the various mechanisms by which hormones affect target cells.

2.      To describe the actions of pancreatic hormones and the control of their secretion

3.      To explain the control of blood glucose levels

4.      To describe the role of the hypothalamus in the integration of neuro-humoral responses 

5.      To describe the control of secretion and the functions of pituitary hormones 

6.      To describe the synthesis and functions of thyroid hormones and how their secretion is regulated

7.      To describe the control of secretion and the functions of adreno-cortical hormones

8.      To describe the control of secretion and the functions of adrenal medullary hormones

9.      To describe the control of secretion and the functions of renin and angiotension 

10.      To describe the regulation of plasma calcium including the actions and control of vitamin D, parathormone and calcitonin

11.      To describe the role of prostaglandins and other autocoids

12.      To describe control of secretion and the functions of atrial natriuretic peptide

13.      discuss meiosis, contrast the processes of mitosis and meiosis.

14.       discuss the general features of male and female gonads, and the process of sexual differentiation during fetal development.

15.       compare and contrast the functional cell types and the various hormones produced in the testis and ovary.

16.       describe genotypic control of sexual development and its relationship to the phenotypic  pathways taken by male and female embryos.

17.   discuss the role of male-specific hormones in formation of the testis and accessory organs, and contrast this with the default female body pattern.

18.  discuss the overall scheme of steroid-hormone (to testosterone and estrogens) and the points of regulation by pituitary hormones.

19.   describe the role of pituitary control of male gonadal function, with emphasis on the negative-feedback loop between the anterior pituitary and testis.

20.  Know progression of events in spermiogenesis and spermatogenesis from spermatogonium to mature spermatozoa.

21.   discuss the roles of Leydig and Sertoli cells and local hormonal production (particularly testosterone).

22.   describe briefly the anatomy and function of male accessory sexual structures and the role of neural reflexes in controlling penile erection and ejaculation.

23.  describe the progression of normal male puberty, including the roles of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in controlling stature, muscle mass, fat deposition and secondary sexual characteristics.

24.  discusses female reproductive physiology.

25.   describe the anatomy and function of the adult female gonads and accessory sexual structures.

26.  maturation in the fertile adult female, and discuss maturation of the Graffian follicle.

27.  58.4 describe the pathways of steroid hormone synthesis from the level of androgens to estradiol.

28.   discuss interplay between ovarian hormone production and the hypothalamic/anterior pituitary axis, and the current understanding of the mid-cycle LH surge.

29.  discuss the menstrual cycle and its relationship to the ovarian cycle, and the hormonal levels that signal changes in the microanatomy of the uterine wall.

30.   describe the process of normal female puberty and menopause, including the roles of estrogens and androgens in the development of secondary sexual characteristics.

31.  describe the process and timing of fertilization, where it takes place, and preparation of the uterine lining required for implantation.

32.   discuss the functions of the placenta.

33.   describe the hormonal requirements for preparation of the milk producing structures in mammary tissue during pregnancy.

34.   know the factors that initiate and maintain contractions of the uterus, with emphasis on the neuroendocrine reflex arc between the uterine stretch receptors and the posterior pituitary.

35.      describe briefly the processes of postpartum milk production and letdown, and describe how the breast is relieved of the hormonal conditioning that occurred during pregnancy rendering it capable of milk production.

36.      discuss the role of prolactin in milk production, and how suckling triggers the neuroendocrine reflex that results in milk letdown.

 

القائمة الرئيسية
 

:: كلمة السيد العميد
:: الرؤية والرسالة والاهداف
:: حقائق وارقام
:: هيكلية الكلية
:: الهيئة التدريسية
:: ارشيف الاخبار
:: ارشيف الصور
:: ارشيف الفديو

 
اعضاء مجلس الكلية
 


 
فروع الكلية
 

:: فرع الطب الباطني
:: فرع الجراحـة
:: فرع النسائية
:: فرع طب الأطفال
:: فرع الأشعة
:: فرع طب المجتمع
:: فرع التشريح
:: فرع الأحياء المجهرية
:: فرع علم الأمراض
:: فرع الأدوية
:: فرع الفسلجة الطبية
:: فرع الكيمياء الحياتية
 

 
أعلام الطب
 

 
عمداء الكلية منذ تأسيسها
 
 
دور اساتذة كلية الطب
 

في المستشفيات التعليمية

 
اطباء الموصل المبدعون
 

 
المنهاج الدراسي لكلية الطب
 

:: المنهاج الدراسي اصدار عام 2012
Curriculum of Medical College

 
مختبرات الكلية
 

:: مختبر الكيمياء الحياتية
:: مختبر الادوية
:: مختبر الامراض
:: مختبر وحدة الحاسوب


 

 
دراسات اكاديمية
 

:: الدراسات الأولية
:: الدراسات العليا

 
الجودة والأداء الجامعي
 

 

 
وحدة الجراحة المنظارية
 

 
الاعتمادية لكليات الطب العراقية
 


 
مؤتمرات
 

 
الندوات
 

 

 
رسائل واطاريح
 

 
حلقات دراسية لطلبة المرحلة السادسة
 

 
مقالات ادبية طبية
 

 
الارشاد التربوي
 
 
دوارمكتبة كلية الطب
 

 
دليل المكتبة الارشادي للعام 2014
 

 
دليل المبتعث العراقي الى USA
 

 
منتدى كلية الطب
 

 
الدليل الموحد للباحث العراقي
 


 
كيفية التسجيل في المكتبة الافتراضية
 


 
النسخة الالكترونية للمجلة
 


 
جوائز وتكريمات
 

::الجوائز والتكريم في كلية الطب

 
صور التخرج
 

 
النتائج النهائية لعام 2012
 

 
ضوابط وزارة التعليم العالي
 

 

 
اتصل بنا
 

 
اتصل بوزارة التعليم العالي
 
 
توقيت الموصل
   
 
جامعة الموصل - كلية الطب

  • العراق – الموصل – حي الشفاء - قرب مستشفى ابن سينا التعليمي
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